Nuclear Power Plant | Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Power Stations


Electricity is a part of our fast moving life. We cannot think anything without electricity.The demand of electricity rapidly increases with booming industrial, population and commercial growth. Our world is growing so fast that the demand of electricity will be double in every ten years. At the same time, fossil fuels (like coal, gas, oil etc.) are limited stock in the world and it cannot fulfil this demand. So, future world is thinking any alternative source of energy and nuclear power plant is the only solution. The most important feature of nuclear power plant is, it can produce a huge amount of electrical energy from relatively small amount of nuclear fuel as compared to other conventional types of power stations, interesting isn't it. It is seen that complete fission of 1 kg nuclear fuel like uranium-235 would produce energy equivalent to 4000 tonnes of high-grade coal. Although nuclear fuels (like uranium, thorium) are difficult to recover and these are expensive too but nuclear fuel cost is considerably less than the conventional steam power station. Fuel cost of nuclear power plant is generally 40% cheaper than a conventional steam power station. In a single word we can say, it is one kind of power station in which nuclear energy is converted to electrical energy is known as a nuclear power plant.


There are lots of advantages of nuclear power plant as compared to other power plants.

1. Since the requirement of fuel is very small, so the cost of fuel transportation, storage etc. is small.

2. Nuclear power plant needs less space as compared to any other power station of the same size. Example: A 100 MW nuclear power station needs 38 - 40 acres of land whereas the same capacity coal based thermal power plant needs 120-130 acres of land.

3. This type of power plant is very economical to produce large electric power.

4. Nuclear power plant can be located near load centre because bulk amount of fuel (like water, coal) is not required.

5. Nuclear power is most economical to generate large capacities of power like 100 MVA or more. It produces huge amount of energy in every nuclear fission process.

6. Using a small amount of fuel, this plant produces large electrical energy.

7. This plant is very reliable in operation.

8. Since, the large number of nuclear fuel is available in this world. So, a nuclear power plant can generate electrical energy thousands of years continuously.

9. Nuclear Power Plant is very neat and clean as compared to a steam power plant.

10. The operating cost is low at this power plant but it is not affected for higher load demand. Nuclear power plant always operates a base load plant and load factor will not be less than 0.8.


Though nuclear power plant has above advantages, but there are some disadvantages of nuclear power plant too,

1.Initial installation cost is very high as compared to the other power station.

2.Nuclear fuel is very much expensive and it is difficult to recover.

3.Capital cost is higher in respect of other power station.

4.Good technical knowledge is required to operate such type plant. So, salary bill and other maintenance cost will be higher to operate such of a plant.

5.There is a chance to spread of radioactive pollution from this type of plant.

6.Nuclear Reactor does not response efficiently with the fluctuating load demand. So, it is not suited for varying the load.

7.Cooling water requirement is twice than a coal based steam power plant.

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